The conflict between Israel and Hamas is a deeply complex and multifaceted issue, rooted in decades of historical, political, and socio-cultural tensions. To comprehend the recent attacks carried out by Hamas on Israel, it is essential to delve into the historical context, the underlying causes, and the immediate triggers that led to this escalation of violence.

Historical Background:

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict traces its roots back to the late 19th century when Jewish immigration to Palestine increased, leading to clashes with Arab communities. In 1947, the United Nations partitioned the region into separate Jewish and Arab states, sparking a war. The state of Israel was declared in 1948, leading to mass displacement of Palestinians and cementing deep-seated grievances.

Hamas Emergence:

Hamas, formally known as the Islamic Resistance Movement, emerged in the late 1980s as an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood. It gained political prominence in the Gaza Strip after winning the Palestinian legislative elections in 2006. Hamas is seen as a resistance movement by its supporters and a terrorist organization by many Western countries, including the United States and the European Union.

Key Issues and Grievances:

  1. Occupation and Settlements: The Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories, particularly the West Bank and Gaza Strip, remains a central point of contention. Israeli settlements in the West Bank are considered illegal by international law and are a source of significant tension.
  2. Blockade of Gaza: Since 2007, Gaza has been under an Israeli and Egyptian blockade, severely limiting the movement of goods and people. This has led to a humanitarian crisis in the region, with high unemployment rates, limited access to healthcare, and inadequate infrastructure.
  3. Refugee Status: The plight of Palestinian refugees, many of whom have been displaced for generations, remains a deeply emotional issue. Their right to return to their ancestral homes is a key demand for Palestinians.
  4. Jerusalem: Jerusalem holds immense religious and cultural significance for both Israelis and Palestinians. The city’s status has been a major point of contention, with Palestinians seeking East Jerusalem as the capital of their future state.
  5. Security Measures: The strict security measures implemented by Israel, including checkpoints, barriers, and military incursions, are seen by many Palestinians as oppressive and dehumanizing.

Immediate Triggers:

The recent escalation of violence can be attributed to several immediate triggers:

  1. Sheikh Jarrah Evictions: The planned eviction of Palestinian families from the Sheikh Jarrah neighbourhood in East Jerusalem to make way for Jewish settlers sparked widespread protests.
  2. Al-Aqsa Mosque Clashes: The storming of Al-Aqsa Mosque by Israeli security forces during Ramadan heightened tensions, leading to clashes between Palestinians and Israeli police.
  3. Hamas Rockets and Israeli Retaliation: In response to these events, Hamas launched rockets into Israel, leading to an aggressive military response from the Israeli Defense Forces.


The recent attacks by Hamas on Israel must be understood within the broader context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. A comprehensive resolution to this deeply entrenched conflict requires addressing the underlying causes and the legitimate grievances of both parties. It is imperative for the international community to work towards a just and sustainable solution that ensures the rights and dignity of all involved.

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